Optimization of crystallization conditions

Optimization of crystallization conditions is based on subtle changes in the following parameters:
  • pH and composition of crystallization buffer
  • concentrations of protein, precipitant, detergents and other additives
  • temperature
  • ligand concentration (if applicable)
  • crystallization techniques
  • ratio of protein solution to crystallization buffer
If crystallization project includes co-crystallization with ligand to determine the binding mode, the optimal method of co-crystallization will be selected at this stage. Co-crystals of protein-ligand complex can be formed by two methods: co-crystallization (ligand is added to protein solution before forming crystals) or soaking (protein crystals are soaked with ligand solution). For these types of projects one set of data is collected for each ligand.

Once individual, well-shaped crystals are obtained, suitable cryoprotectant and cooling method will be selected to ensure the highest diffraction resolution.